Sunday, March 17, 2019

Upcoming Cheap on Crime Appearance at Manny's

Hello Everyone,

I'm writing to invite you to an upcoming talk at Manny's, the new cafĂ©/civic engagement center in San Francisco (Valencia and 16th). 

When: April 9, 7:30pm-9pm
Where: Manny's, 3092 16th Street, San Francisco
What: Cheap on Crime talk, with a special emphasis on the Trump Administration era. A little abstract:

Literature on “late mass incarceration” observed a contraction of the carceral state, with varying opinions as to its causes and various degrees of optimism about its potential. But even optimistic commentators were taken aback by the Trump-Sessions Administration’s criminal justice rhetoric. This paper maps out the extent to which federal, state and local actions in the age of Trump have reversed the promising trends to shrink the criminal justice apparatus, focusing on federal legislation, continued state and local reform, and the role of criminal justice in 2020 presidential campaigns. In this talk, I argue that the overall salutary trends from 2008 onward have slowed down in some respects, but continued on in others, and that advocacy concerns should focus on particular areas of the criminal justice apparatus, notably the intersection of crime and immigration and the issue of violent crime.

Come in your thousands and bring friends!

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Moratorium!!! What Does It Mean?

California's death chamber: closed. Source:
Office of the Governor.
Today's stunning, forward-thinking announcement from Governor Newsom requires some careful parsing out. I am on my way to KQED, where I will discuss this with Scott Shafer and Marisa Lagos at 11am. If you can't listen to the broadcast, here are some initial thoughts about the implication of this announcement and where I think we should go from here.

Moratorium: What It Is

Bob Egelko from the Chronicle reports:

Gov. Gavin Newsom is suspending the death penalty in California, calling it discriminatory and immoral, and is granting reprieves to the 737 condemned inmates on the nation’s largest Death Row.
“I do not believe that a civilized society can claim to be a leader in the world as long as its government continues to sanction the premeditated and discriminatory execution of its people,” Newsom said in a statement accompanying an executive order, to be issued Wednesday, declaring a moratorium on capital punishment in the state. “The death penalty is inconsistent with our bedrock values and strikes at the very heart of what it means to be a Californian.”
He plans to order an immediate shutdown of the death chamber at San Quentin State Prison, where the last execution was carried out in 2006. Newsom is also withdrawing California’s recently revised procedures for executions by lethal injection, ending — at least for now — the struggle by prison officials for more than a decade to devise procedures that would pass muster in federal court by minimizing the risk of a botched and painful execution.

The elements of Newsom's orders are therefore: (1) a reprieve for every death row inmate; (2) shutdown of the execution chamber (3) a withdrawal of the continuous effort to revise death protocols, which we discussed on this blog numerous times. So, no more "tinkering with the machinery of death," for at least a while.

Moratorium: What It Isn't

Newsom is not commuting anyone's death sentence. Even though executions will not happen, all death row inmates are still sentenced to death and housed on Death Row. He is also not pardoning anyone. This is far from the last step on the road to death penalty abolition. Shutting down the chamber and the protocol revision process, however, will set back executions even if Newsom's predecessor misguidedly brings the death penalty back.

Why Didn't Newsom Commute All Death Sentences?

Not all death sentences are eligible for commutation, and if Newsom were to commute all of them, he would be facing ferocious litigation. Shortly before the end of his gubernatorial career, Jerry Brown offered some commutations, which were reversed by the California Supreme Court, citing "abuse of power." Some capital convictions, under California law, are not eligible for commutation, importantly in cases of prior felony convictions, which is the case for about half the inmates on death row. The last word on commutations lies with the court, not with the Governor, and if the Newsom administration wants to offer commutations, it will have to offer them on a case-by-case basis.

Why now?

It's anyone's guess, so here are some of my speculations. First, even in these cynical times, when the federal government is full of self-interested people for whom values and the good of the country do not rank particularly high on the priority list, there still are folks who do things on the state and local level because they think they are the right thing to do. Newsom is a long-time opponent of the death penalty and what he has done is in line with his personal values (in fact, conservative commentators have already attacked him for putting his values first--as if it is a bad thing.) Other reasons for the timing might involve the Kevin Cooper case, in which Newsom, joining the growing chorus of people with serious doubts about the conviction, recently ordered more DNA testing. Also, keep in mind that this is not a departure from Newsom's previous gubernatorial acts in the criminal justice area. A classic example is his plan to move juvenile justice out of CDCR's control into health and human services. He seems to be hell-bent on dragging the California correctional apparatus, kicking and screaming, into the 21st century, and turn us from a national embarrassment to a national leader in criminal justice.

Can Pro-Death-Penalty Activists Stop This?

They can try, and likely will. There's nothing they can do about the 737 reprieves--those are squarely within the Governor's ambit--but they could argue that the shutdown of the chamber and withdrawal of the regulations slouches toward an encroachment on a legislative process. It is quite likely that, in the next couple of days, they will seek (and perhaps receive) an injunction against that part of the Governor's order, and that will drag on in the courts for a while. Meanwhile, though, no one gets executed, and that's the material thing, and moreover, as of 12:45pm today, the death chamber has already been physically dismantled.

What Happens to Existing Death Penalty Litigation?

Because none of the sentencing has changed, everything in the capital litigation machine remains in place; in fact, just this morning I spoke to a friend who specializes on capital postconviction litigation and he was on his way to court for a death penalty case. So all of that stuff--quibbling over injections and historical miscarriages of justice--continues as scheduled, except perhaps with some less urgency.

Can Prosecutors Seek the Death Penalty in Cases Pending Today?

Yes, they can, and there are already murmurs around the web by prosecutors that they are required to do the bidding of their constituents (remind me again why we elect prosecutors and politicize our justice system?). But it would be, perhaps, more difficult for a San Bernardino, L.A., Orange, or Riverside county D.A. to justify seeking capital punishment, which is costly litigation (partly because it triggers an automatic appeal)

Should We Try to Abolish through an Initiative Again?

My two cents: Not anytime soon. Here's why: When several European countries abolished the death penalty when local public opinion still favored it (check out the current struggle in Belarus, which embarrassingly is the only other Western country, beside the United States, with a death penalty). This seems to be one of those things--like, ahem, slavery, antimiscegenation, and homophobic laws about legal recognition of relationships--where top-down decisions tend to precede changes in public opinion and the public falls in line later. Keep in mind that support for the death penalty is at its lowest point since the 1960s and declining; in a recent piece, Daniel LaChance assesses the death penalty in the 21st century and concludes that it is in its last throes.

And remember, Newsom is a sharp and accurate predictor of the arc of progress, as he did with the marriage equality debacle, but he sometimes predicts things too soon for the public. Recall that he was on the right side of the same-sex marriage debate back in 2004, when thousands of our friends and neighbors stood in line in front of San Francisco City Hall to get married. What followed was years of arduous litigation, including a legal change AND a constitutional amendment that were supported by a small majority of Californians (just like the death penalty.) Newsom's patience in leading struggles like this, it seems, pays off, and even though some criticized it as a political risky move, Kamala Harris' recent trials and tribulations show that taking the opposite tack (doing politically expedient things that support the death penalty and selling out values for technicalities) also does not exactly pay off. If one has to choose between the fallout from being a careful political tactician and being a leader with values, Newsom has consistently chosen the latter.

Which is why I think we need to let the fallout from this play out for a while without getting public opinion mixed into all this (we know that, in 1865, the Civil War defeat didn't exactly shift all Southerners toward support of slavery abolition.) Let's see where the litigation over the order goes. Let's keep track of homicide rates in the state for a few years, and when we see--as research consistently shows--that the moratorium has not eroded deterrence and that the death penalty has no proven deterrent power, it will be easier to get rid of it. Also, the passage of time plays out into another important aspect of this: the Eighth Amendment interpretation incorporates "evolving standards of decency", so let's allow them to evolve and see what the courts do. Which brings us to our last two points:

Nationwide Implications for the Death Penalty?

Eighth Amendment litigation is often shaped by the passage of time. What seemed kind and usual at one time might not seem like that today, and notwithstanding Foucaultian scholars and postmodernists of all stripes, in general the courts' tendency has been to assume that we are moving forward, not in circles. California becoming a de-facto abolitionist state is a huge boost to the national struggle for abolition. We have the biggest death row in the country and have been very influential in the arena of extreme punishment. This is a big contribution to the critical mass of states that have moved to the abolitionist side--nineteen so far, and with California it'll be twenty--and this bodes very well for a national abolition, though the current Supreme Court might be a more difficult venue to pursue this than how it was in its pre-Gorsuch and Kavanaugh makeup.

What About LWOP and LWP--the Other Two Components of the Extreme Punishment Trifecta?

Newsom's decision does not affect the tens of thousands of people serving lengthy life sentences in California--with and without parole. Moreover, keeping death row inmates on death row means that they continue to litigate extensively at the state's expense, and none of that investment and attention goes into the other two components of what I call, in my forthcoming book Yesterday's Monsters, the "extreme punishment trifecta." If anything, taking the mystery out of whether people are getting executed highlights the lack of difference between death row and life sentences and makes the arguments that life sentences are "the other death penalty" starker.

This only means that what happened today is good news. As readers of this blog know, I've always been upset with the progressive tendency to assume that reform is the enemy of revolution and that Dismantlement of the Prison Industrial Complex Must Happen Today Or Not At All. Which is why I wrote, back in 2016, this op-ed, titled "Are you against the death penalty? Good. Then vote against the death penalty." The point that life sentences are cruel and horrible is not lost on me; quite the opposite, I've written a book that argues that attacking LWOP is not enough and that LWP is just as draconian given the vicissitudes of the CA parole system. But what we must remember is that reform always happens incrementally. I recently got to talk about this with Marc Mauer, coauthor of The Meaning of Life. Mauer says we must focus on life sentence abolition in all states that have already abolished the death penalty, and I think he's right. Newsom's courageous stance means that we can get to that business in California soon, and I, for one, am delighted that we finally get to fight more fights for what's right.

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Thank You for Your Courage, Governor Newsom

Governor Newsom's announcement of a death penalty moratorium is a breath of fresh air after decades of stagnation. Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in California, 13 inmates have been executed, while close to a hundred died of natural causes. Hundreds spend decades waiting for legal representation in interminable appeals whose focus has gradually shifted from big questions of humanity, discrimination, and innocence, to technicalities and chemicals. The death penalty—not in fantasy, but as actually administered in California—is racially discriminatory, risks tragic miscarriages of justice, and offers no comfort or closure to many victim’s families, as it is essentially an expensive version of life without parole in a dilapidated facility, to the tune of $150 million of taxpayer money annually.

Twice in the last decade did abolitionists attempt to marshal the voters’ common sense to retire the death penalty, and twice they came close, but failed. Public support for capital punishment is at its lowest level since the 1960s; almost half of California voters oppose it, and of those who support it in theory, few are aware of its many flaws, potential for mistakes, and ridiculous price tag. European countries that abolished the death penalty did so when it was still supported by most of their voters; sometimes the government and the legal system needs to take a moral stance when the public is not yet ready to do so.

Our political leaders, who could have dragged California’s extreme punishment into the 21st century, did not deliver. Former Governor Jerry Brown, personally opposed to the death penalty, did not use his last term in office—the perfect opportunity for a courageous, progressive move—to do the right thing. Neither did former Attorney General Kamala Harris, also personally opposed to the death penalty, who appealed a federal judge’s decision that the death penalty in California was unconstitutional due to the delays in its application. While upholding the decision would not have dismantled the death penalty, it would have created a political opportunity for doing so, and could have finally ended the political impasse that rendered California a national leader in so many ecological and social areas and a national embarrassment in its criminal justice system.

Californians should applaud Governor Newsom for doing what he can within the limit of his time in office to move the most draconian piece in the California correctional puzzle to its rightful place—the past. It is thanks to this visionary step that we will be able to shift the obscene expenditure on capital punishment toward what truly benefits Californians—not symbolic, fear-driven clinging to a misguided idea of a functional death row, but education, health care, green industry, and infrastructure. Finally, the sun shines on the darkest corner of California’s correctional landscape.

Tomorrow? Newsom? Death Penalty???

This just in:

Governor Gavin Newsom is expected to announce he is taking executive action to try to eliminate the use of the death penalty in California.
Two sources familiar with the governor's plans tell NBC4's I-Team that Newsom may use the governor office's authority to reduce sentences of all condemned inmates on death row.
Newsom has been calling elected officials around the state to share some information, but details are expected to be revealed at a news conference at 10 a.m. Wednesday.

!!!! Stay tuned !!!!

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Mourning Jeff Adachi

A great light has dimmed. San Francisco Public Defender Jeff Adachi (Hastings '85) has died, leaving behind a tremendous legacy of advocacy of the highest quality for the indigent and disenfranchised. The Chronicle reports:
San Francisco Public Defender Jeff Adachi, a renowned advocate for the accused and an outspoken watchdog on police misconduct, has died. 
He was 59. 
Mayor London Breed confirmed Friday night that Adachi had died, saying that San Francisco had “lost a dedicated public servant.” He was the only elected public defender in California. 
The exact circumstances and cause of Adachi’s death were not immediately known, but sources said he died of a heart attack. 
“As one of the few elected public defenders in our country, Jeff always stood up for those who didn’t have a voice, have been ignored and overlooked, and who needed a real champion,” Breed said in a statement. “He was committed not only to the fight for justice in the courtroom, but he was also a relentless advocate for criminal justice reform.
“Jeff led the way on progressive policy reforms, including reducing recidivism, ending cash bail, and standing up for undocumented and unrepresented children.”
What a shocking loss, and what big shoes for all of us to fill. Jeff fought injustice and cruelty at every junction; I encountered him near San Quentin, working to abolish the death penalty, and at the courts fighting against cash bail. I found him in reentry meetings advocating for clean records and at the helm of realignment, probation, and community corrections. San Francisco is a beacon of common sense in an ocean of California counties that still massively incarcerate largely because of him. He will be, and is already, gravely missed.

Thursday, February 21, 2019

CDCR Eliminates Inmate Copayments for Health Care

Today CDCR announced that, effective March 1, they will eliminate inmate copayments for healthcare, because an internal analysis reveals that copayments "have minimal fiscal benefit and are not aligned with patient care." 

Specifically, copayments may hinder patients from seeking care for health issues which, without early detection and intervention, may become exacerbated, resulting in decreased treatment efficacy and/or increased treatment cost. The Department’s health care delivery system, known as the Complete Care Model, is based on a preventative and comprehensive approach to patient care. Early detection and preventative health care aligns with most public and private health care organizations and can prove to be fiscally prudent.

The first thing that occurred to me upon reading this was how many people are probably unaware that incarcerated patients make copayments, just like patients on the outside. How did that come about? CDCR provides background:

In 1994, Section 5007.5(a) was added to the Penal Code (PC) to read: CDCR is authorized to charge a fee in the amount of five dollars ($5) for each inmate-initiated medical or dental visit of an inmate confined in the state prison, which will be charged to the prison account of the inmate. If the inmate has no money in his or her personal account, there shall be   no charge for the medical or dental visit. An inmate shall not be denied medical care because of a lack of funds in his or her prison account. The medical provider may waive the fee for any inmate-initiated treatment and shall waive the fee in any life-threatening or emergency situation, defined as those health services required for alleviation of severe pain or for immediate diagnosis and treatment of unforeseen medical conditions that if not immediately diagnosed and treated could lead to disability or death. Follow-up medical visits at the direction of the medical staff shall not be charged to the inmate.
This section aligns with other savings trends I reviewed in Cheap on Crime. The most egregious one is, of course, the pay-to-stay jail, but less egregious examples abound and participation in health care costs is one of them. 

What I find interesting is that the same savings rationale used for imposing the costs in the first place is now being used for getting rid of them--copayments are not vile and unjust; rather, the problem is that they don't pay off, because they deter people from seeking health care and thus make their condition worse and therefore more expensive.

The elephant in the room, of course, is the question of quality. Health care in California prisons is becoming more and more expensive and we are once again taking heat from the Ninth Circuit for the disappointing quality of mental health care in prison. But if it's not getting better, it is at least being offered for free.


Saturday, January 19, 2019

Barr v. Sessions: A Return to Cheap on Crime?

A short while ago I posted about the bipartisan enactment of the First Step Act, a bipartisan compromise bill offering evidence-based rehabilitation programming and early releases for nonviolent drug offenders. Harkening back to the pre-Trump era of cooperation, the animus behind this law is pragmatic, but I does have some important humanitarian provisions, such as the categorical prohibition of shackling pregnant women or women who have just given birth.

William Barr's confirmation hearings yielded many interesting insights into his future as Attorney General. For me, one interesting moment was when Chuck Grassley (!!!) pressed Barr on his tough-on-crime record. The Brennan Center reports:

"Will you commit to fully implementing the FIRST STEP Act?" asked Sen. Chuck Grassley, a key champion of the law. 
"Yes, senator," Barr responded. Barr said that when he was last attorney general in the early 1990s, the violent crime rate was high and prison sentences were short. The system had broken down, he said. Barr argued that the growth of the prison population helped bring crime down since then, something the Brennan Center strongly disputes. But he acknowledged that times have changed. 
"I have no problem with the approach of reforming the prison structure and I will faithfully implement the law."
This excerpt is a real gem. First, note that the question comes from Grassley, not usually who you'd think of as a champion for the oppressed. Second, note that Barr does not just say he'll uphold the law, but actually goes into the merits of the law and essentially makes the argument that times have changed.

As the Brennan Center reports elsewhere, Barr is no bleeding heart prison reformer himself. The exchange between him and Grassley is an exchange between two Republicans, which confirms that much of the spirit of Cheap and Crime is alive and well.

This makes Sessions' tenure as Attorney General even more interesting as an outlier. When touring with Cheap on Crime, I met Vikrant Reddy, an interesting and sharp-minded thinker about criminal justice reform on the right side of the political map. When we met, Reddy was working for Right on Crime, a conservative think tank about which I wrote extensively in the book. Right on Crime was making the argument that economic sustainability and small government principles required trimming the criminal justice apparatus, calling a truce on the war on drugs, and considering programs for reducing imprisonment. He has since then changed affiliations and now works for the Koch institute as a Senior Fellow. When we met, I asked Reddy what he thought about the diversity of opinion about criminal justice within the Republican Party. He said something that I found very interesting.

There was a generational gap, Reddy explained, between "old-skool" Republicans, who came of age politically during the era of high crime rates between the 1960s and 1980s, and the newer generation of conservative politicians, who were representing constituencies that experienced much safer streets and communities. The latter group was much more open to political compromise, if only for the sake of financial prudence.

Sessions is definitely a card-carrying member of the former group of politicians. In his confirmation hearings, he referred to marijuana smokers as "bad people", an approach woefully out of touch not only with empirical research but with public opinion across the political spectrum. In an era of reasonable Republicans invested in reform, the Trump administration had to look long and hard for the only war-on-drugs dinosaur left in the Republican Party, and in Sessions, they found this rare and dying breed, to the detriment of us all: Sessions proceeded immediately to instruct federal prosecutors  to adopt a "zero tolerance" policy, which the prosecutors themselves called him to recant.  He revoked the Obama-era moratorium on the use of private prisons and took part in various other nefarious criminal justice initiatives that could not be justified by humanism or by efficiency.

What is interesting about Barr is that he is not a younger politician. His record on criminal justice from the early days is appalling. And nonetheless, he has been able to look around him, notice that the world has changed, and assure Grassley that criminal justice reformers will find him cooperative and willing to listen to reason. I find a glimmer of hope in this. Old punitive dogs can, and do, learn new tricks sometimes.

-----
Thanks to Jodi Short for our conversation about this.